Is it considered a bad practice to use code-behind with ASP.NET MVC Views? Got into a bit of a debate about this with my colleagues today and I was wondering the community's thoughts.
Obviously, this isn't an option when using another MVC like Rails, which makes me think it's relied on more as a crutch for those accustom to working with traditional ASP.NET Web Forms applications.
I used code-behind extensively on my first ASP.NET MVC (Preview 3!) project - primarily for doing stuff like casting ViewData["foo"] into strongly-typed data objects, gathering view data into IEnumerables so I could loop across it, that kind of thing.
With the introduction of strongly-typed views, and pragmatic use of the (horrifically-named) Model-View-ViewModel pattern, I haven't missed code-behind at all since it was removed from the project framework just before the final release.
I now strongly feel that whatever processing you're doing in your view's code-behind, you are far better off modelling the result of that processing in your ViewModel, allowing the controller to perform the actual processing, and keep the view as simple and lightweight as you can. That'll let you test the processing logic, it makes the views easier to modify, and creates - I think - a much more elegant separation between transforming your data for display, and actually displaying it.
Yes the codebehind has long been the secret hiding place of business logic which as we all know should not be at the View level.
Code behind has been removed to stop naughty developers from being tempted.
Certainly the authors of ASP.NET MVC In Action advise against it, and I agree. It isn't necessary, so why do it? In the early betas a code-behind file was included, but this was removed at RTM (or shortly before).
Typically, it simply encourages you to do more non-view work than you should in the view, as it is out of sight / out of mind.
I would say that it's a bad practice to use code-behinds with ASP.NET MVC. MVC allows separation of concern where presentation logic (in Views) are separated from application logic (in Controllers). Using code-behinds will mix presentation logic and application logic inside the code-behinds, whereby defeating some of the benefits of MVC.
I would recommend avoiding the codebehind in an MVC app at all costs. Using the code behind negates some of the values you get by using the MVC Framework such as separation of concerns, etc. You want to have your data access, business rules, type conversion and that sort of thing applied in the Model. If you find you need to convert your data types like Dylan mentioned, you may want to make ViewModels. The ViewModel would basically be the data from the actual Model you would like to display, in the format you wish to display it in.
Its probably best to avoid putting anything in the code behind when using MVC.
I would be interested to hear which part was being debated about, to go in the codebehind?
If you new to Asp.Net MVC, I really recommend spending some time going through the Nerd dinner example. There's a free EBook and source available here http://nerddinner.codeplex.com/.
Creating the simple demo from scratch is a great way to learn.
After doing this, it may shed some light on where the code you have in the codebehind, could alternatively go.
Note: If you do follow the EBook, grab the latest
site.css file from codeplex, otherwise the virtual earth maps won't be aligned properly.
It should be noted that "Code Behind" is a feature of the Web Forms view engine. It really has nothing to do with ASP.NET MVC itself.
For example, the Razor view engine in MVC3 does not even support it.
I would answer your question this way: If you cannot switch view engines without rewriting your controllers (or even your models) then you are not using the MVC pattern correctly.
Probably most of what you are doing in the .aspx.cs file should really be done before the model (or View Model) gets passed to the view. That said, in projects that I have migrated from ASP.NET Web Forms to ASP.NET MVC, I left a lot of the Code Behind in place. For example, I find it cleaner and more pleasing to use a Repeater control than to try to use a 'for' loop in Web Forms. I am still just iterating over View Model data after all. So why not? Separation of concerns is preserved (perhaps to a greater degree in fact).
I mean, why should "best practice" for Web Forms suddenly be the wrong way to do a Web Forms View? As a simple example, consider a Repeater that assigns a different CSS class to every second row of a table. Why should my controller (or even my model) care? Trying to put this kind of logic inline in Web Forms quickly devolves into tag soup and complete spaghetti. Now imagine something more complicated.
I have left Master pages in place that build the menus in the code behind. Again, all data comes from the View Model. I do not see why using GridView or other controls in this way should be a problem either.
I usually disabled ViewState in Web Forms anyway and did the data binding in "Init". Still, there would often be a small ViewState that I could not get rid of. I put some code in "Render" that moves this to after the form (it defaults to before). When moving to MVC, I sometimes left this code in. So, I have ASP.MVC sites that do indeed use Code Behind. I am just careful that it code that is specific to the view.
On new projects, I generally have found less of a need for Code Behind on most pages. Thankfully, view engines like Razor have made mixing code and mark-up in-line a lot less painful to write, read, and maintain.